Oil Fundamentals: Crude Oil Grades and Refining Process

Oil fundamentals is a series of research articles which will go through the how the oil market is structured, what the most important refined products are and what their use is. The present research article will also explore the most relevant chemical aspects of oil markets such as API gravity and sulphur content. This research […]

The Crack Spread

Crude oil and petroleum products remain a key commodity as far as energy production is concerned. The refining industry uses crude oil to produce petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel/gasoil, jet fuel oil, kerosene, fuel oil, residual fuel oil, etc. However, refiners will have to sell petroleum products to a price which is, in terms […]

Oil Fundamentals: Upstream, Midstream, Downstream & Geopolitics

The third research article of the oil fundamental series will explore and break down the whole oil industry. Specifically, the current research will explore what upstream (exploration and extraction), midstream (logistics and transportations) and downstream (refining) sectors are and what they do. The current research will also go through the geopolitics of oil and examine […]

Oil Fundamentals: Reserves and Import/Export Dynamics

The second research article of the oil fundamentals series is going to focus on three macroeconomics aspects which are the core of oil market: oil reserves-to-production ratio, oil import and oil export. The present research article will explore how big oil reserves are by region, it will proceed with analysing oil imports by country to […]

The Oil Arbitrage: Brent vs WTI

Brent and WTI futures are the most important and traded types of crude oils. Brent and WTI crude grades are quite similar from a chemical standpoint as they are both considered to be light and sweet (which means they have a relatively low amount of carbon atoms). Brent is the global benchmark while WTI is […]